Shalat sebagai Aktivitas Kognitif Kompleks: Kajian Teoretis dan Studi Kualitatif

  • Yusuf Alam Romadhon Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta
Keywords: neurosains, shalat, tugas kognitif

Abstract

Secara ontologis kajian neurosains shalat
berada satu rumpun dengan meditasi. Masih terbatas kajian neurosains
tentang aspek kognitif dari shalat. Secara fenomonelogi subyektif
shalat merupakan aktivitas ibadah agama Islam dimulai dengan niat,
pelaku merubah orientasi kesadarannya menjadi kurang/mengabaikan
sama sekali sekitarnya, memberikan perhatian penuh pada hal-hal yang
harus disadari pada shalat, mulai gerakan shalat,munajat [‘berdialog’]
kepada Allah [Tuhan], ‘merasa’ diperhatikan Allah, bersungguhsungguh
melakukan hal-hal yang ‘disukai’ Allah dalam shalat [total
surrender], memahami makna bacaan shalat, merefleksikan diri pada
makna bacaan-bacaan tersebut, dan pahala yang diterima tergantung
pada seberapa besar bagian yang disadarinya. Dalam konteks orang
Indonesia, terdapat aktivitas kognisi translasi bahasa Arab ke dalam
bahasa ibu ketika menjalankan beban kognisi shalat. Tujuan:
Mengeksplorasi jenis-jenis aktivitas kognitif yang terlibat ketika
seseorang melakukan shalat. Metoda: Ekstraksi studi kepustakaan
neurosains tentang meditasi, shalat, dan tugas-tugas kognitif
konsentratif lainnya, pelacakan teks-teks agama yang relevan dan studi
kualitatif dengan wawancara mendalam pada narasumber kompeten
(snowball). Hasil dan kesimpulan: Dua aktivitas kognitif utama
dalam shalat: pertama, aktivitas kognitif “pro tugas” meliputi
perubahan kesadaran dari kesadaran basal, penggunaan memori kerja
dimana terdapat interaksi antara memori jangka pendek dan memori
jangka panjang untuk memahami bacaan yang dilafalkan, penerapan
“theory of mind [teori pikiran]”, kedua, aktivitaskognitif “kontra tugas”
yang diperankan oleh default mode network (DMN) yang mendasari
pikiran mengembara (mind wandering) yang menjadi pengganggu
tugas kognisi. Disamping itu, terdapat konsep trait yang menunjukkan
bukti plastisitas otak karena repetisi aktivitaskognitif shalat dalam
jangka waktu lama. Perlu studi pencitraan syaraf dan elektrofisiologi
lebih lanjut untuk mengkonfirmasi secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif
terhadap aktivitaskognitif shalat.

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Published
2018-02-21