Faktor Yang Berkontribusi Pada Kejadian Pneumonia Nosokomial

Authors

  • Diyah Candra Anita Universitas Aisyiyah Yogyakarta
  • K Kardi RSUP Dr. Sardjito

Keywords:

Pneumonia nosocomial, Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), Factor risiko, Lama perawatan

Abstract

Pneumonia nosocomial atau hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP) merupakan infeksi pada parenkim paru yang disebabkan pathogen di rumah sakit. Terdapat banyak factor yang berhubungan dengan kejadian pneumonia nosokomial. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis factor yang berkontribusi terhadap kejadian pneumonia noskomial. Metode penelitian adalah kuantitatif analisis dengan pendekatan cross sectional. Penelitian dilakukan di sebuah ruang rawat inap RSUP di Yogyakarta selama 1 bulan dengan 40 partisipan. Instrumen pengambilan data menggunakan lembar checklist, rekam medik, dan wawancara kepada dokter penanggung jawab pasien. Analisis data menggunakan regresi logistic. Diperoleh hasil bahwa seluruh factor secara bersama-sama berkontribusi pada kejadian infeksi nosocomial sebesar 49.90%. Faktor lama rawat inap dan terapi pemberian antibiotic berhubungan bermakna dengan kejadian pneumonia nosocomial (p<0.05). Diharapkan pada penelitian selanjutnya bisa menganalisis lebih mendalam pada biokimiawi darah dan pelaksanaan perioperative pada pasien yang menderita pneumonia nosokomial.

References

[1] Torres A, Niederman MS, Chastre J,
Ewig S, Fernandez-Vandellos P,
Hanberger H, Kollef M, Bassi GL, Luna
CM, Martin-Loeches C, Paiva JA, Read
RC, Rigau D, Timsit JF, Welte T, and
Wunderink R. International
ERS/ESICM/ESCMID/ALAT guidelines
for the management of hospital-acquired
pneumonia and ventilator-associated
pneumonia. 2017. Eur Respir J. 50: 1-12.
[2] Giuliano KK, Baker D, Quinn B. The
epidemiology of nonventilator hospitalacquired
pneumonia in the United States.
2018. American Journal of Infection
Control. 46 (3): 322-327.
[3] Chawla R. Epidemiology, etiology, and
diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia
and ventilator-associated pneumonia in
Asian countries. 2008. Am J Infect
Control. 36: S93-100.
[4] Halim S, Amin Z. Profil klinis pasien
hospital acquired pneumonia di ruang
rawat penyakit dalam. Ebers Papyrus. 20
(1): 19-28.
[5] Fortaleza CMCB, Abati PAM, Batista
MR, Dias A. Risk Factors for Hospital-
Acquired Pneumonia in Nonventilated
Adults. 2009. The Brazilian Journal of
Infectious Diseases. 13(4):284-288.
[6] Feng DY, Zhou YQ, Zou XL, Zhou M,
Wu WB, Chen XX, Wang YH, Zhang
TT. Factors influencing mortality in
hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by Gram-negative bacteria in China. 2019.
Journal of Infection and Public Health.
12 (5): 630-633.
[7] Nasution LH. Infeksi nosocomial. 2012.
MDVI. 39 (1): 36-41.
[8] CDC definitions of nosocomial
infections. [cited 2021 March 8].
Available from:
www.medicalcollege.kku.edu.sa/pgcme/
Nosocomial/CDC Definitions.pdf
[9] Carrilho CMDM, Grion CMC, Bonametti
AM, Medeiros EAS, Matsuo T.
Multivariate analysis of the factors
associated with the risk of pneumonia in
intensive care units. 2007. Braz J Infect
Dis. 11 (3): 339-344.
[10] Melati, D. Lama rawat inap dan
pengguna antibiotik sebagai faktor resiko
pneumonia nosokomial pada anak di
RSUP Sanglah. Universitas Udayana;
2014.
[11] Joshi M, Kaur S, Kaur HP, Mishra T.
Nosocomial infection: source and
prevention. 2019. International Journal
of Pharmaceutical Sciences And
Research/IJPSR. 10 (4):1613-1624.
[12] Ward JPT, Ward J, Leach RM, Wiener
CM. At A glance: sistem respirasi. Edisi
Kedua. Jakarta: Erlangga; 2008.
[13] Akkoyunlu Y, Oztoprak N, Aydemir H,
Piskin N, Celebi G, Ankarali H,
Akduman D. Risk Factor for nosocomial
pneumonia in intensive careunits of
University Hospital. 2013. Journal of
Mikrobiology and infectious Diseases.
3(1): 3-7.
[14] Kollef M, Shorr A, Tabak Y, Gupta V,
Liu L, Johannes. Epidemiology and
Outcomes of Health-care–Associated
Pneumonia: Results from a Large US
Database of Culture-Positive Pneumonia.
2005. CHEST. 128 (6): 3854-3862.
[15] Beradsley JR, Williamson JC, Johnson
JW, Ohl CA, Karchmer B, Bowton DL.
Using Local Microbiologic Data To
Develop Institution-Specific Guidelines
for the Treatment of Hospital-Acquired
Pneumonia. 2006. CHEST. 130 (3): 787-
793.
[16] Falagasa ME, Mourtzoukoua EG,
Vardakasa KZ. Sex differences in the
incidence and severity of respiratory tract
infections. 2007. Respiratory Medicine.
101: 1845-1863.
[17] Fattah, A. Nosocomial pneumonia; risk
factors, rates and trend. 2008. East
Mediter Health J. 14 (3): 546-55.
[18] Sopena N, Heras E, Casa I, Bechini J,
Guasch I, Botet LP, Roure S, Sabria M.
Risk factors for hospital-acquired
pneumonia outside the intensive care
unit: A case-control study. 2014.
American Journal of Infection Control.
42 (1): 38-42.
[19] Marimoto K, Suzuki M, Ishifuji T,
Yaegashi M, Asoh N, Hamashige N, Abe
M, Aoshima M, Ariyoshi K. The Burden
and Etiology of Community-Onset
Pneumonia in the Aging Japanese
Population: A Multicenter Prospective
Study. 2015. PLOS ONE. 1-12
[20] Thomson DA, Makary MA, Dorman T,
Pronovost PJ. Clinical and Economic
Outcomes of Hospital Acquired
Pneumonia in Intra-Abdominal Surgery
Patients. 2006. Ann Surg. 243 (4): 547-
552.
[21] Mohri Y, Tonouchi H, Miki C,
Kobayashi M, Kusunoki M. Incidence
and Risk Factors for Hospital-acquired
Pneumonia After Surgery for Gastric
Cancer: Results of Prospective
Surveillance. 2008. World Journal of
Surgery. 32: 1045-1050.
[22] Valentino A, Endrian R, Ameini F.
Gambaran Kejadian Pneumonia pada
Pasien Pasca Kraniotomi di Ruang Rawat
Intensif RSUD Arifin Achmad Provinsi
Riau Periode Januari 2015 sampai
Desember 2019. 2020. JIK. 14 (2): 111-
120.
[23] Nurul R, Hikmah F, Pertiwi DA. Analisis
faktor penyebab kejadian
hospitalacquired pneumonia (HAP) pada
pasien instalasi rawat inap kelas III RS
Paru Jember tahun 2015. 2016. Jurnal
Kesehatan. 4 (3): 1-16.
[24] Vidal A, Santos L. Comorbidities impact
on the prognosis of severe acute
community-acquired pneumonia. 2017. Porto Biomedical Journal. 2 (6): 265-
272.
[25] Kózka M, Sega A, Wojnar-Gruszka K,
Tarnawska A, Gniadek A. Risk Factors
of Pneumonia Associated with
Mechanical Ventilation. 2020. Int. J.
Environ. Res. Public Health. 17 (2): 656.
[26] Alawaliyah SM. Penggunaan nasogastric
tube sebagai faktor risiko pneumonia
nosokomial di RSUP Dr. Sadjito
Yogyakarta. Univeritas Gadjah Mada;
2013.
[27] Ghorbani N, Nassaji M, Ghorbani R.
Incidence, risk factors and prognosis of
nosocomial pneumonia in adult patients
admitted in the intensive care unit. 2021.
KOOMESH. 23 (1): 78-83
[28] Rosyid AN, Thaha M. Tatalaksana
pneumonia bakterial pada penyakit ginjal
kronis. FK Universitas Airlangga; 2013.
[29] Yeh JJ, Lin CL, Kao CH. Relationship
between pneumonia and cardiovascular
diseases: A retrospective cohort study of
the general population. 2019. European
Journal of Interna Medicine. 59: 39-45.
[30] Yunita S, Sukrama DM. Karakteristik
penderita hospital acquired pneumonia
dan ventilator associated pneumonia
yang disebabkan Acinetobacter
baumannii di intensive care unit RSUP
Sanglah dan pola kepekaannya terhadap
antibiotik selama November 2014 –
Januari 2015. Universitas Udayana;
2015.
[31] Sousa D, Dominguez JA, Manzur A,
Izquierdo C, Ruiz L, Nebot M, Bayas J,
Cellorio JM, Varona W, Llinares P,
Miguez E, Sanchez E, Carratala J.
Community-acquired pneumonia in
immunocompromised older patients:
incidence, causative organisms and
outcome. 2013. Clinical Microbiology
and Infection. 19 (2): 187-192.

Downloads

Published

2021-05-27

How to Cite

Anita, D. C., & Kardi, K. (2021). Faktor Yang Berkontribusi Pada Kejadian Pneumonia Nosokomial. Prosiding University Research Colloquium, 864–871. Retrieved from http://repository.urecol.org/index.php/proceeding/article/view/1490