Analisis Faktor Individu, Keluarga dan Lingkungan sebagai Faktor Risiko Berat Badan Lebih/Obesitas pada Penduduk Indonesia (Sebuah Studi Observasional)

Authors

  • Retno Sintowati Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta
  • Yusuf Alam Romadhon Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Keywords:

Jetlag sosial, Kronobiologi lingkungan, Obesitas, Perilaku ritme sirkadian, Risiko keluarga

Abstract

Obesitas merupakan salah satu masalah kesehatan utama di dunia, termasuk di Indonesia. Saat ini prevalensi angka obesitas cenderung meningkat. Guna berkontribusi dalam penanganan obesitas yang lebih efektif dan efisien, diperlukan pemahaman mengenai faktorfaktor yang menyebabkan obesitas. Penelitian ini menganalisis faktor risiko potensial berat lebih dan obesitas secara multilevel, yakni meliputi lingkungan kronobiologis, keluarga dan perilaku individu dalam konteks masyarakat Indonesia. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian observasional potong lintang yang melibatkan 795 sampel dari populasi penduduk dewasa Indonesia dari berbagai zona waktu, yang kemudian dianalisis lebih lanjut faktor-faktor pada level keluarga (status pernikahan, pendapatan keluarga, fungsi keluarga dengan APGAR Family, pencari nafkah utama keluarga, perawat utama keluarga, dan pembuat keputusan utama di keluarga); dan pada level individu (usia, gender, pendidikan formal, status kesehatan mental meliputi tingkat depresi, ansietas dan stress, perilaku ritme sirkadian, serta jetlag sosial). Hasil analisis regresi logistik menunjukkan bahwa faktor-faktor yang memiliki hubungan bermakna dengan kejadian berat lebih dan obesitas pada meliputi pendapatan keluarga >Rp2.500.000 pada level keluarga; serta usia >=30 tahun, pendidikan formal >=12 tahun, dan jetlag sosial >=2.5 jam pada level individu, dengan adjusted odds ratio/aOR[p] secara berurutan sebesar 1.646(0.026), 5.553(0.000), 2.367(0.003), dan 2.962(0.027). Sebagai kesimpulan, faktor risiko berat lebih dan obesitas di level keluarga meliputi pendapatan keluarga; dan di level individu meliputi usia, pendidikan formal dan jetlag sosial. Tidak ditemukan hubungan yang bermakna antara faktor lingkungan kronobiologi dengan kejadian berat lebih dan obesitas.

References

[1] Kemenkes RI. Laporan nasional
riskesdas 2018. In: Lembaga Penerbit
Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan
Kesehatan (LPB (Vol. 3). 2019.
[2] Hemmingsson E, Ekblom Ö, Kallings
LV, Andersson G, Wallin P, Söderling J,
et al. Prevalence and time trends of
overweight, obesity and severe obesity in
447,925 Swedish adults, 1995–2017.
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health,
November 2019. 2020;1–7.
https://doi.org/10.1177/14034948209148
02.
[3] Wang Y, Beydoun MA, Min J, Xue H,
Kaminsky LA, Cheskin LJ. Has the
prevalence of overweight, obesity and
central obesity levelled off in the United
States? Trends, patterns, disparities, and
future projections for the obesity
epidemic. International Journal Of
Epidemiology. 2020:810–823.
https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyz273
[4] Mulugeta W. Longitudinal trends and
risk factors for obesity among
immigrants in Massachusetts. Am J Prev
Med. 2019;58(3):378–385. Available
from:
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2019.10.
003.Longitudinal.
[5] Rhee E. Review article prevalence and
current management of cardiovascular
risk factors in Korean adults based on
fact sheets. Endocrinol Metab 2020;35:
85–94.
[6] Wati H, Thabrany H. Perbandingan klaim
penyakit katastropik peserta jaminan
kesehatan nasional di Provinsi DKI
Jakarta dan Nusa Tenggara Timur tahun
2014. Jurnal Ekonomi Kesehatan
Indonesia, 2014;1(2): 18–27.
https://doi.org/10.7454/eki.v1i2.1771.
[7] GBD. Global burden of 369 diseases and
injuries in 204 countries and territories ,
1990 – 2019 : a systematic analysis for
the Global Burden of Disease Study
2019. Lancet. 2020;396:1204–22.
Available from:
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-
6736(20)30925-9.
[8] Silveira EA, de Souza Rosa LP, de
Carvalho Santos ASEA, de Souza
Cardoso CK, Noll M. Type 2 diabetes
mellitus in class ii and iii obesity:
prevalence, associated factors, and
correlation between glycemic parameters
and body mass index. Int J Environ Res
Public Health. 2020 Jun 2;17(11):3930.
doi: 10.3390/ijerph17113930.
[9] Muscogiuri G, Barrea L, Aprano S,
Framondi L, Di Matteo R, Laudisio D, et
al. Sleep quality in obesity: does
adherence to the mediterranean diet
matter? Nutrients 2020;12(5):1–11.
Available from:
https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051364.
[10] Rodgers GP, Gibbons GH. Obesity and
hypertension in the time of COVID-19.
Journal of the American Medical
Association. 2020;324(12):1163–1165.
Available form:
https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.16753
[11] Kalligeros M, Shehadeh F, Mylona EK,
Benitez G, Beckwith CG, Chan PA, et al.
Association of obesity with disease
severity among patients with coronavirus
disease 2019. Obesity. 2020;28(7):1200–
1204. Available from:
https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.22859.
[12] Anto EO, Owiredu WKBA, Adua E,
Obirikorang C, Fondjo LA, Annani-
Akollor ME, et al. Prevalence and
lifestyle-related risk factors of obesity
and unrecognized hypertension among
bus drivers in Ghana. Heliyon.
2020;6(1):e03147. Available from:
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e0
3147.
[13] Yamada M, Hapsari ED, Matsuo H.
Behaviors toward noncommunicable diseases prevention and their relationship
with physical health status among
community-dwelling, middle-aged and
older women in Indonesia. International
Journal of Environmental Research and
Public Health. 2020;17(7).
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072332.
[14] Benyaich A. The effects of the
Mediterranean diet on chronic diseases:
cardiovascular diseases, oxidative stress,
dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, blood
pressure, cancer, neurodegenerative
disease and obesity. Journal of Applied
and Advanced Research. 2017;2(6):333.
Available from:
https://doi.org/10.21839/jaar.2017.v2i6.1
22.
[15] Bergmeier H, Paxton SJ, Milgrom J,
Anderson SE, Baur L, Hill B, et al. Early
mother-child dyadic pathways to
childhood obesity risk: a conceptual
model. Appetite. 2020; 144 (May 2019).
Available from:
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2019.1044
59.
[16] Hoeeg D, Christensen U, Grabowski D.
Intra-familial health polarisation: how
diverse health concerns become barriers
to health behaviour change in families
with preschool children and emerging
obesity. Sociology of Health and Illness.
2020;42(6):1243–1258. Available from:
https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.13091
[17] Sepúlveda AR, Lacruz T, Solano S,
Blanco M, Moreno A, Rojo M, et al.
Identifying loss of control eating within
childhood obesity: the importance of
family environment and child
psychological distress. Children.
2020;7(11):225. Available from:
https://doi.org/10.3390/children7110225.
[18] Djalalinia S, Moghaddam SS, Sheidaei
A, Rezaei N, Iravani NSS, Modirian M,
et al. Patterns of obesity and overweight
in the Iranian population: findings of
STEPs 2016. Frontiers in Endocrinology.
2020; 11(February). Available from:
https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.00042
[19] Stoner L, Beets MW, Brazendale K,
Moore JB, Weaver RG. Social jetlag is
associated with adiposity in children.
Global Pediatric Health. 2018;5:
2333794X1881692. Available from:
https://doi.org/10.1177/2333794x188169
21.
[20] Holmer BJ, Lapierre SS, Jake-Schoffman
DE, Christou DD. Effects of sleep
deprivation on endothelial function in
adult humans: a systematic review.
GeroScience. 2021. Available from:
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-020-
00312-y.
[21] Jackson SE, Llewellyn CH, Smith L. The
obesity epidemic – nature via nurture: a
narrative review of high-income
countries. SAGE Open Medicine. 2020;8:
205031212091826. Available from:
https://doi.org/10.1177/20503121209182
65.
[22] Omar SM, Taha Z, Hassan AA, Al-
Wutayd O, Adam I. Prevalence and
factors associated with overweight and
central obesity among adults in the
Eastern Sudan. PLoS ONE.
2020;15(4):1–10. Available from:
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0232
624.
[23] Ariaratnam S, Shakira W, Hasani R,
Krishnapillai AD, Akmal H, Hamid A, et
al. Prevalence of obesity and its
associated risk factors among the elderly
in Malaysia : findings from the National
Health and Morbidity Survey ( NHMS )
2015. PLoS ONE. 2020;15(9):1–9.
Available from:
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0238
566.
[24] Kadam SA, Patil NV, Shinde MB.
Prevalence & identify the risk factors for
obesity among housewifes. Journal of
Critical Reviews. 2020;7(13):102–105.
Available from:
https://doi.org/10.31838/jcr.07.13.16.
[25] Ma?incová L, Šafa?íková S, Cahlíková R.
Analysis of main risk factors contributing
to obesity in the region of East Africa:
meta-analysis. African Health Sciences.
2020;20(1):248–256. Available from:
https://doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v20i1.30.
[26] Chung W, Lim S. Factors contributing to
educational differences in obesity among women : evidence from South Korea.
BMC Public Health. 2020;20:1–11.
[27] Popa A, Fratila O, Rus M, Aron R, Vesa
C, Pantis C, et al. Risk factors for
adiposity in the urban population and
influence on the prevalence of
overweight and obesity. Experimental
and Therapeutic Medicine. 2020;10:
129–133. Available from:
https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.8662.
[28] Martins AJ, Isherwood CM, Vasconcelos
SP, Lowden A, Skene DJ, Moreno CRC.
The effect of urbanization on sleep,
sleep/wake routine, and metabolic health
of residents in the Amazon region of
Brazil. Chronobiology International
Selected. 2020 Aug 11;1-9. doi:
10.1080/07420528.2020.1802287.
[29] Luhar S, Timæus IM, Jones R,
Cunningham S, Patel SA, Kinra S, et al.
Forecasting the prevalence of overweight
and obesity in India to 2040. PLoS ONE.
2020;15(2):1–17. Available from:
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0229
438.
[30] Cuevas AG, Chen R, Slopen N, Thurber
KA, Wilson N, Economos C, et al.
Assessing the role of health behaviors,
socioeconomic status, and cumulative
stress for racial/ethnic disparities in
obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring).
2020;8(1):161–170. Available from:
https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.22648.Assess
ing.
[31] Manrique-Acevedo C, Chinnakotla B,
Padilla J, Martinez-Lemus LA, Gozal D.
Obesity and cardiovascular disease in
women. Int J Obes (Lond).
2020;44(6):1210–1226. Available from:
https://doi.org/doi:10.1038/s41366-020-
0548-0.
[32] Milano W, Ambrosio P, Carizzone F,
Biasio VD, Capasso A. Clinical and
social aspects of obesity and eating
disorders. PhOL. 2020;3:94–97.
Available from:
http://pharmacologyonline.silae.it.
[33] Caussy C, Pattou F, Wallet F, Simon C,
Chalopin S, Telliam C, et al. Prevalence
of obesity among adult inpatients with
COVID-19 in France. The Lancet
Diabetes and Endocrinology. 2020;8(7):
562–564. Available from:
https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-
8587(20)30160-1.

Downloads

Published

2021-05-27

How to Cite

Sintowati, R., & Romadhon, Y. A. (2021). Analisis Faktor Individu, Keluarga dan Lingkungan sebagai Faktor Risiko Berat Badan Lebih/Obesitas pada Penduduk Indonesia (Sebuah Studi Observasional). Prosiding University Research Colloquium, 580–589. Retrieved from http://repository.urecol.org/index.php/proceeding/article/view/1448